Chapter Quiz
1.  

The first organic molecule to be synthesized from inorganic substances was _____. (p. 53)


urea

acetic acid

ammonium cyanate

insulin

DNA


2.  

Stanley Miller's experiments were significant because he demonstrated that _____. (p. 53)


the behavior of any molecule containing a carbon atom was fundamentally the same

under certain circumstances the theory of vitalism was valid

a large variety of organic compounds could be spontaneously synthesized from components in Earth's primitive atmosphere

lightning discharges could produce the molecules previously presumed to have originated in volcanic outgassings

urea could be synthesized from entirely naturally occurring salts


3.  

Which is an organic molecule? (p. 52)


Ne

O2

CH4

NaCl

H2O


4.  

Which element is most particularly associated with organic chemistry? (p. 52)


carbon

sulfur

nitrogen

potassium

oxygen


5.  

What is the three-dimensional shape created by hybrid orbitals that are formed when a carbon atom is covalently bonded with four other atoms? (p. 53)


a flat sheet with carbon in the center

a triangle with carbon in the center

a cube with carbon in the center

a tetrahedron with carbon in the center

all of the above are possible


6.  

A molecule constructed from ___ must contain at least one carbon-carbon double bond. (p. 53)


6 hydrogen, 2 carbon

6 hydrogen, 3 carbon

6 hydrogen, 2 carbon, 1 oxygen

8 hydrogen, 3 carbon, 3 oxygen

14 hydrogen, 12 carbon


7.  

Carbon atoms are the most versatile building blocks of the molecules used by living organisms because _____. (p. 53)


carbon is the central atom of carbon dioxide, a necessary molecule for photosynthesis

carbon is the central atom in urea, a molecule used by many living organisms to transport wastes from the body

each carbon atom acts as an intersection point from which a molecule can branch off in up to four directions

carbon can combine with hydrogen to form hydrocarbons

all of the above


8.  

The carbon atom is tetravalent; this means that _____. (p. 53)


carbon readily forms ionic bonds

carbon's first electron shell holds 4 electrons

a carbon atom can complete its valence shell by forming four covalent bonds

the bond angle between each bond is 90°, forming an arrangement like the points on a compass

carbon has a total of 4 electrons


9.  

At the beginning of the 19th century, it was thought that the substances that made up living things were special and could not be synthesized by ordinary chemical methods. This now-discarded theory was called the theory of ___________. (p. 53)


special creation

spontaneous generation

vitalism

protoplasmic dynamism

none of the above


10.  

A molecule has one carbon-carbon double bond and four monovalent atoms or groups. How many different geometric isomers exist for this molecule? (p. 56)


0

2

4

6

8


11.  

Which of these is found in amino acids? (p. 59)


R–COOH

R–COH

R–OH

R–NH2

R–PO4


12.  

The two compounds  and  are related to each other by being _____. (p. 56)


hydrocarbons

organic compounds

isomers

double-bonded compounds

all of the above


13.  

Glucose and hexanoic acid each contain six carbon atoms, but they have completely different properties. Glucose is necessary in food; hexanoic acid is poisonous. Their differences must be due to different _____. (p. 57)


monomers

macromolecules

hydrolysis

quaternary structures

functional groups


14.  

Although the structures of the functional groups that are most important to life vary, they share one thing in common: They _____. (p. 57)


all contain oxygen

all have at least one double bond

cause the carbon to which they are attached to become an asymmetric carbon, and they convert the molecule into an enantiomer

all are hydrophilic and increase the organic compound's water solubility

unite the skeleton into a closed ring


15.  

Ethanol, propanol, and methanol are three simple alcohols. They can be grouped together because they _____. (p. 57)


all share the same functional group: a hydroxyl

are soluble in water

are soluble in nonpolar solvents

all contain a carbonyl group

increase the acidity of solutions


16.  

The functional group most closely resembling sulfhydryl is the _____ group. (p. 59)


amino

carboxyl

hydroxyl

phosphate

carbonyl


17.  

Which one of the following has a carboxyl group? (p. 59)


R–NH2



R–SH

R–OH


18.  

Which one of the following is a weak base? (p. 59)


R–NH2



R–SH

R–OH


19.  

Which one of the following is a weak acid? (p. 59)


R–NH2



R–SH

R–OH


20.  

Which one of the following has an amino group? (p. 59)


R–NH2



R–SH

R–OH


21.  

Which one of the following has a carbonyl group? (p. 58)


R–NH2



R–SH

R–OH


22.  

Which one of the following has a sulfhydryl group? (p. 59)


R–NH2



R–SH

R–OH


23.  

From your knowledge of organic chemistry, you would predict that an abscisic acid (ABA) molecule has a(n) __________ group. (p. 59)


carboxyl

hydroxyl

carbonyl

amino

sulfhydryl


24.  

The ionized or dissociated carboxyl group may be written as _____. (p. 59)


–S -

–O -

–COO -

–NH4 -

–C=O -


25.  

Which one of the following groups would NOT be capable of hydrogen bonding with an oxygen atom on another functional group? (p. 57)


amino

methyl

carboxylic acid

phosphate

hydroxyl


26.  

Choose the pair of terms that complete this sentence about functional groups in organic chemistry: Carboxyl is to __________ as __________ is to base. (p. 58)


acid ... carbonyl

base ... carbonyl

acid ... amino

base ... amino

base ... thiol


27.  

Which one of these has a phosphate group? (p. 59)


R–SH

R–COH

R–OH

R–NH2

R–PO4


28.  

Which of these is a thiol? (p. 59)


R–SH

R–COH

R–OH

R–NH2

R–PO4


29.  

Which of these is found in amino acids? (p. 59)


R–COOH

R–COH

R–OH

R–NH2

R–PO4

   



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