Chapter Quiz
1.  

What is the process by which cells link monomers together to form polymers? (p. 63)


hydrolysis

monomerization

protein formation

coiling

dehydration synthesis


2.  

In a hydrolysis reaction, _____, and in this process water is _____ . (p. 63)


a polymer breaks up to form monomers ... consumed

a monomer breaks up to form polymers ... produced

monomers are assembled to produce a polymer ... consumed

monomers are assembled to produce a polymer ... produced

a polymer breaks up to form monomers ... produced


3.  

Cellulose is a _____ made of many _____. (p. 67)


polypeptide ... monomers

carbohydrate ... fatty acids

polymer ... glucose molecules

protein ... amino acids

lipid ... triglycerides


4.  

Why does the enzyme amylase break down starch but not cellulose? (p. 67)


The enzyme cannot attack cellulose because of its helical shape.

Cellulose molecules are much too large.

Starch is made of glucose; cellulose is made of other sugars.

The bonds between sugars in cellulose are much stronger.

The sugars in cellulose bond together differently than in starch.


5.  

Generally, animals cannot digest the linkages between the glucose molecules in cellulose. How then do cows get enough nutrients from eating grass? (p. 67)


They have to eat a lot of it.

Microorganisms in their digestive tracts hydrolyze the cellulose to glucose.

Cows and other herbivores are exceptions and make some cellulose-digesting enzymes.

The flat teeth and strong stomach of the herbivores break the cellulose fibers so the cows get enough nutrition from the cell contents.

All of the above.


6.  

The ovalbumin in egg white can be classified as which type of protein? (p. 72)


structural

transport

storage

contractile

signal


7.  

In what polysaccharide form do plants store sugar to be available later for energy? (p. 66)


glycogen

cellulose

starch

protein

fatty acids


8.  

The type of bond that forms to bind monomers (such as sugar and amino acids) into polymers (such as starch and proteins) is a(n) __________ bond. (p. 65)


hydrogen

covalent

ionic

peptide

van der Waals


9.  

Which one of the following molecules has the lowest molecular weight? (p. 64)


sucrose

lactose

glucose

cellulose

chitin


10.  

Which one of the following molecules is a carbohydrate? (p. 64)


C51H98O6

C45H84O8PN

C60H100O50

C22H49O10N5

C25H43O


11.  

At a conference, the speaker's grand finale was sautéing mealworms (insect larvae) in butter and serving them to the audience. They were crunchy (like popcorn hulls) because their exoskeletons contain the polysaccharide _____. (p. 68)


collagen

cellulose

linoleic acid

chitin

glycogen


12.  

Carbohydrates are mainly used in our bodies for _____. (p. 65)


membrane construction

structural molecules, such as hair and fingernails

building the genetic material

energy storage and release

lipid storage


13.  

The complex carbohydrate that you are most likely to have eaten recently is _____. (p. 66)


chitin

starch

glucose

lactose

ribose


14.  

One characteristic shared by sucrose, lactose, and maltose is _____. (p. 65)


they are all polysaccharides

they are all monosaccharides

they are all disaccharides

they all contain fructose

they are all indigestible by humans


15.  

A polysaccharide that we use for storing energy in our muscles and livers is _____. (p. 67)


glucose

glycogen

starch

chitin

cellulose


16.  

Which one of the following is NOT a function of carbohydrates (as a class)? (p. 65)


structural support

energy storage

energy source

enzymatic catalysis

All are carbohydrate functions.


17.  

Disaccharides can differ from each other in all the following ways EXCEPT _____. (p. 65)


in the number of monosaccharides they contain

in the existence of enantiomers

in the type of monomer involved

in the location of the glycosidic linkage

in the fatty acids they contain


18.  

The subunits (monomers) in cellulose are linked together by ___________. (p. 67)


ionic bonds

glycosidic linkages

peptide bonds

phosphodiester links

ester links


19.  

Which one of the following components of a tossed salad will pass through the human digestive tract with the least digestion? (p. 67)


sugar (in the dressing)

oil (in the dressing)

starch (in the croutons)

cellulose (in the lettuce)

protein (in the bacon bits)


20.  

Lipids differ from other large biological molecules in that they _____. (p. 68)


are much larger

are not truly polymers

do not have specific shapes

do not contain carbon

contain no nitrogen atoms


21.  

Which is the correct term for compounds that do not mix with water? (p. 69)


phospholipids

hydrophobic

hydrophilic

protein

hydrogen bonded


22.  

Nutritionally, saturated triglycerides are considered to be less healthful than unsaturated. What is the difference between them? (p. 69)


Saturated triglycerides are fats; unsaturated are carbohydrates.

Saturated triglycerides have more hydrogens than unsaturated.

Saturated triglycerides have more double bonds than unsaturated.

Saturated triglycerides are liquid at room temperature.

All of the above.


23.  

The lipids that form the main structural component of cell membranes are _____. (p. 71)


triglycerides

proteins

cholesterol

carbohydrates

phospholipids


24.  

Some athletes use anabolic steroids to build their body mass. Why is this considered a problematic practice? (p. 71)


Anabolic steroids inhibit the body's production of normal sex hormones.

Anabolic steroids can cause mood swings and depression.

Anabolic steroids are illegal in some sports.

Anabolic steroids can result in cardiovascular problems.

All of the above.


25.  

If a small droplet of ordinary fat molecules is suspended in water, the fat molecules form a "ball of spaghetti" with no particular orientation. But if a droplet of phospholipids is put in water, all the molecules point outward, toward the water. Phospholipids are forced into this orientation because phospholipids have _____. (p. 70)


a charged end and a noncharged end

three fatty acid molecules, all pointing in different directions

the ability to neutralize hydroxide ions in water by releasing hydrogen ions

both a saturated fatty acid and an unsaturated fatty acid

two charged ends


26.  

A fatty acid containing at least two double bonds is called _____. (p. 70)


polyunsaturated

cholesterol

monounsaturated

dehydrogenase

saturated


27.  

Which one of the following is a true statement comparing phospholipids and triglycerides (fats and oils)? (p. 69)


Both molecules contain a phosphate group.

Triglycerides may be saturated or unsaturated, but all phospholipids are saturated.

Phospholipids are the primary storage form for fats in our bodies.

Phospholipid molecules have a distinctly polar "head" and a distinctly nonpolar "tail," while triglycerides are predominantly nonpolar.

In nature, phospholipids occur in fused rings (sterol form), while triglycerides maintain a straight-chain form.


28.  

Estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone belong to which class of molecules? (p. 71)


proteins

amino acids

lipids

carbohydrates

nucleic acids


29.  

The term "polyunsaturated" means that a fat or oil _____. (p. 70)


is a diglyceride rather than a triglyceride

contains two or more carbon-carbon double bonds

will be solid at room temperature

has the maximum number of hydrogens possible for the number of carbons

contains more calories than a saturated fat or oil


30.  

Which of the following is a polymer? (p. 67)


testosterone, a steroid hormone

cellulose, a plant cell wall component

glucose, an energy-rich molecule

aspartame, an artificial sweetener

fructose


31.  

Manufacturers make vegetable oils solid or semisolid by ___________. (p. 70)


adding hydrogens to the double bonds

adding chemicals to retard spoilage

chilling and refrigeration

adding animal fats to them

changing the triglycerides to mono- or diglyerides


32.  

Which one of the following is the major energy storage compound of plant seeds? (p. 70)


amylose

glycogen

cellulose

fats

oils


33.  

Some lipids are formed by linking together fatty acids with glycerol. These subunits are linked together by a(n) ___________. (p. 69)


glycosidic linkage

ionic bond

peptide bond

phosphodiester bond

ester linkage


34.  

On the basis of the principle of complementary base pairing, you would expect the percentage of ___ to be equal to the percentage of ____. (p. 83)


A ... T

A ... G

T ... G

A ... C

T ... C


35.  

The fatty acid tail of a phopholipid is ___________ because it ___________. (p. 70)


hydrophobic ... dissolves easily in water

hydrophobic ... has no charges to which water molecules can adhere

hydrophilic ... consists of units assembled by dehydration synthesis

hydrophilic ... is easily hydrolyzed into its monomers

hydrophobic ... consists of units assembled by dehydration synthesis


36.  

Which of the following are pyrimidines? (p. 82)


adenine and guanine

thymine and cytosine

thymine and adenine

uracil and guanine

guanine and cytosine


37.  

The overall three-dimensional shape of a polypeptide is called the _____. (p. 77)


double helix

primary structure

secondary structure

tertiary structure

quaternary structure


38.  

How does DNA differ from RNA? (p. 80)


DNA is larger.

One of their nitrogenous bases is different.

They contain different sugars.

DNA consists of two strands in a double helix.

All of the above are differences.


39.  

Which of the following would probably NOT be affected when a protein is denatured? (p. 78)


primary structure

secondary structure

hydrogen bonds

tertiary structure

All of the above must be affected for the protein to be denatured.


40.  

Which of the following ranks these molecules in the correct order by size? (p. 71)


water - sucrose - glucose - protein

protein - water - glucose - sucrose

water - protein - sucrose - glucose

protein - sucrose - glucose - water

glucose - water - sucrose - protein


41.  

A nucleotide is made of which of the following chemical components? (p. 82)


a nitrogenous base, an amino acid, and a pentose sugar

a nitrogenous base, an amino acid, and a phosphate group

a nitrogenous base, a phosphate group, and a pentose sugar

a nitrogenous base, a fatty acid, and an amino acid

a series of nitrogenous bases and a sugar-phosphate backbone


42.  

To what does the term "polypeptide" refer? (p. 71)


organic molecules linked by dehydration synthesis

organic monomers covalently bonded

amino acids linked by hydrolysis

carbohydrates with a hydrogen bond holding them together

none of the above


43.  

Enzyme molecules require a specific shape to perform their catalytic function. Which of the following might alter the protein shape? (p. 78)


denaturing the protein

making salt and pH changes in the environment

heating the protein

mixing in a chemical that removes hydrogen bonds

all of the above


44.  

The a helix and pleated sheet represent which level of protein structure? (p. 76)


primary structure

secondary structure

tertiary structure

quaternary structure

pentiary structure


45.  

The peptide bond is _____. (p. 73)


a hydrogen bond

an ionic bond

a covalent bond

a van der Waals interaction

more than one of the above


46.  

Protein molecules are polymers (chains) of _____. (p. 74)


DNA molecules

chromosomes

ribosomes

amino acid molecules

photosynthesis molecules


47.  

The "primary structure" of a protein refers to _____. (p. 74)


the a helix or pleated sheets

interactions among the side chains or R-groups of the amino acids

coiling due to hydrogen bonding between amino acids

the weak interaction of two or more polypeptides

the number and sequence of amino acids


48.  

Which of the following do nucleic acids and proteins have in common? (p. 71)


They are both made of amino acids.

Their structures contain sugars.

They are hydrophobic.

They are large polymers.

They each consist of four basic kinds of subunits.


49.  

A glucose molecule is to starch as _____. (p. 66)


a steroid is to a lipid

a protein is to an amino acid

a nucleic acid is to a polypeptide

a nucleotide is to a nucleic acid

an amino acid is to a nucleic acid


50.  

A shortage of phosphorus in the soil would make it especially difficult for a plant to manufacture _____. (p. 82)


DNA

proteins

cellulose

fatty acids

sucrose

   



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