Chapter Quiz
1.  

A molecule is oxidized when it _____. (p. 156)

changes shape
gains a hydrogen (H+) ion
loses a hydrogen (H+) ion
gains an electron
loses an electron


2.  

In cellular respiration, _____ is oxidized and _____ is reduced. (p. 158)

oxygen ... ATP
ATP ... oxygen
glucose ... oxygen
carbon dioxide ... water
glucose ... ATP


3.  

Most of the ATP produced in cellular respiration comes from _____. (p. 167)

glycolysis
chemiosmosis
lactic acid fermentation
biosynthesis
the Krebs cycle


4.  

Which one of the following best describes the electron transport chain? (p. 159)

Electrons are pumped across a membrane by active transport.
Acetyl CoA is fully oxidized to CO2.
Hydrogens are added to CO2 to make an energy-rich compound.
Electrons pass from one carrier to another, releasing a little energy at each step.
Glucose is broken down to a three-carbon compound in preparation for the Krebs cycle.


5.  

An electron carrier acts as an energy-storage molecule when it is __________ (for example, __________). (p. 158)

reduced ... NAD
oxidized ... NAD
oxidized ... NADH
reduced ... NADH
oxidized ... FADH2


6.  

The function of cellular respiration is to _____. (p. 156)

reduce CO2
extract CO2 from the atmosphere
extract usable energy from glucose
synthesize macromolecules from monomers
produce carbohydrates


7.  

Which of the following substances, if any, is NOT involved in oxidative phosphorylation? (p. 160)

ADP
oxygen
ATP
Pi
All of the above are involved in oxidative phosphorylation.


8.  

During the reaction C6H12O6 + 6 O2 6 CO2 + 6 H2O, ___________. (p. 160)

oxygen becomes reduced
glucose becomes reduced
CO2 becomes reduced
water becomes reduced
both glucose and CO2 become reduced


9.  

The principal hydrogen-atom-carrier molecules in cells are composed of ___________. (p. 158)

amino acids
fatty acids
nucleotides
sugars
phospholipids


10.  

A small amount of ATP is made in glycolysis _____. (p. 162)

by the transfer of a phosphate group from a fragment of glucose to ADP (substrate level phosphorylation)
using energy from the sun to perform photosynthesis
by the transport of electrons through a series of carriers
when electrons and hydrogen atoms are transferred to NAD+
as a product of chemiosmosis


11.  

A chemist has discovered a drug that blocks phosphoglucoisomerase, an enzyme that catalyzes the second reaction in glycolysis. He wants to use the drug to kill bacteria in people with infections. But he can't do this because _____. (p. 161)

bacteria are facultative anaerobes; they usually don't need to perform glycolysis
glycolysis produces so little ATP that the drug will have little effect
human cells also perform glycolysis; the drug might also poison them
bacteria do not perform glycolysis
glycolysis can occur without the action of enzymes


12.  

In glycolysis, the glucose splits into two 3-carbon compounds: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and 1,3-diphosphoglyceric acid. Which of the following statements is true? (p. 162)

Only one of these compounds is used, which explains the low efficiency of energy retrieval of cell respiration.
One of the compounds goes through the Krebs cycle and one becomes lactate.
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and 1,3-diphosphoglyceric acid are interconvertible.
All of the carbons in glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate are immediately converted to carbon dioxide.
None of the above.


13.  

Of the metabolic pathways listed below, the only pathway found in all organisms is _____. (p. 160)

cellular respiration
the Krebs cycle
the electron transport chain
glycolysis
fermentation


14.  

Of the following molecules in the glycolytic pathway (the process of glycolysis), the one with the most chemical energy is __________. (p. 162)

pyruvate
glucose
fructose-6-phosphate
fructose-1,6-bisphosphate
glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate


15.  

During respiration in a eukaryotic cell, reactions of glycolysis occur, or are located, in or on ___________. (p. 160)

the cytosol
the matrix of the mitochondrion
the cristae of the mitochondrion
the intermembrane space of the mitochondrion
across the inner membrane of the mitochondrion


16.  

Which of the following molecules, if any, is NOT a reactant or product in the first step of glycolysis? (p. 162)

ATP
glucose
glucose-6-phosphate
ADP
All the above are reactants or products in the first step of glycolysis.


17.  

Most of the NADH that delivers high-energy electrons to the electron transport chain comes from _____. (p. 164)

chemiosmosis
the cytoplasm
glycolysis
biosynthesis
the Krebs cycle


18.  

In an experiment, mice were fed glucose (C6H12O6) containing a small amount of radioactive oxygen. The mice were closely monitored, and in a few minutes radioactive oxygen atoms showed up in _____. (p. 164)

carbon dioxide
NADH
water
ATP
oxygen gas


19.  

In preparing pyruvate to enter the Krebs cycle, which of the following steps does NOT occur? (p. 164)

It is oxidized by reducing an NAD+ to an NADH.
A carbon atom is released in carbon dioxide.
A compound called coenzyme A binds to a two-carbon fragment.
Oxygen must be present for the pyruvate to enter the Krebs cycle.
The two-carbon fragment formed after a carbon atom is released as carbon dioxide is called lactate.


20.  

Why is the Krebs cycle called a cycle? (p. 164)

Glucose is cycled around and resynthesized.
NAD+ and FAD are recycled.
The two-carbon acetyl CoA binds to a four-carbon molecule that is restored at the end of the cycle.
Carbon dioxide is cycled back to photosynthesis.
NADH is cycled down the electron transport chain.


21.  

In the Krebs cycle, the energetic production per glucose molecule is _____. (p. 164)

2ATP, 6 NADH, 2 FADH2
38 ATP
4 ATP, 8 NADH
2 ATP, 6 NADH
1 ATP, 3 NADH, 1 FADH2


22.  

What is the name of the process in which glucose is converted to pyruvate? (p. 161)

chemiosmotic theory
fermentation
glycolysis
the Krebs cycle
none of the above


23.  

During respiration in a eukaryotic cell, reactions of the Krebs cycle occur, or are located, in or on ___________. (p. 160)

the cytosol
the matrix of the mitochondrion
the cristae of the mitochondrion
the intermembrane space of the mitochondrion
across the inner membrane of the mitochondrion


24.  

How many ATPs are gained by substrate-level phosphorylation from the complete breakdown of a single molecule of glucose in the presence of oxygen? (p. 161)

2 ATP
4ATP
6 ATP
36 ATP
none of the above


25.  

The major (but not sole) energy accomplishment of the Krebs cycle is the ___________. (p. 164)

formation of CO2
formation of ATP
formation of NADH and FADH2
utilization of O2
completion of substrate phosphorylations


26.  

After completion of the Krebs cycle, most of the usable energy from the original glucose molecule is in the form of ___________. (p. 164)

acetyl CoA
ATP
NADH
CO2
oxaloacetate


27.  

When pyruvate is converted to acetyl CoA ___________. (p. 164)

CO2 and ATP are formed
CO2 and NADH are formed
CO2 and coenzyme A are formed
one turn of the Krebs cycle is completed
(oxidized) NAD is regenerated


28.  

Which one of the following serves primarily as a hydrogen-atom-carrier molecule in cells? (p. 164)

ATP
cyclic AMP
FAD
RNA
DNA


29.  

The energy given up by electrons as they move through the electron transport chain is used to _____. (p. 167)

break down glucose
make NADH and FADH2
pump H+ through a membrane
oxidize water
manufacture glucose


30.  

The ATP synthase in a human cell gets energy for making ATP directly from _____. (p. 167)

sunlight
the flow of H+ through a membrane
the oxidation of glucose
the movement of electrons through a series of carriers
the reduction of oxygen


31.  

When a poison such as cyanide blocks the electron transport chain, glycolysis and the Krebs cycle soon grind to a halt as well, because _____. (p. 168)

they run out of ATP
the buildup of unused oxygen interferes with glycolysis and the Krebs cycle
they run out of NAD+ and FAD
electrons are no longer available from the electron transport chain
they run out of ADP


32.  

The enzyme ATP synthase forms ATP _____. (p. 167)

due to the potential energy of a concentration gradient of hydrogen ions across a membrane
due to substrate-level phosphorylation
from glucose in the absence of oxygen
in the absence of chemiosmosis
from GTP


33.  

Most of the high-energy electrons released from glucose by cell respiration _____. (p. 164)

are used for synthesizing lactate
are used to form ATP by the Krebs cycle
are bound to FAD to be sent through electron transport
are in the carbon dioxide
none of the above


34.  

In respiration, which one of the following does the electron transport chain (or its components) NOT do directly? (p. 167)

carry electrons
carry protons
phosphorylate ADP to make ATP
regenerate (oxidized) FAD
form a proton gradient


35.  

During oxidative phosphorylation in eukaryotic cells, ATP synthase catalyzes the phosphorylation of ADP to form ATP. The energy needed for this endergonic reaction comes from _____. (p. 167)

DNA replication
the movement of hydrogen ions from the intermembrane space to the mitochondrial matrix
the fermentation of pyruvate to form lactate
the movement of FADH from the cytoplasm to the mitochondria
the reduction of NAD+ to form NADH


36.  

Which part of the cellular catabolism of glucose requires molecular oxygen (O2)? (p. 167)

glycolysis
the Krebs cycle
the electron transport chain
fermentation
all of the above


37.  

During aerobic respiration, molecular oxygen (O2) is used _____. (p. 167)

at the end of glycolysis to switch from the fermentation pathway
at the end of the Krebs cycle to cycle back to citric acid
between glycolysis and the Krebs cycle to split a carbon from pyruvate
between the Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain to move NADH and FADH2
at the end of electron transport chain to accept electrons and form H2O


38.  

If humans did not breathe in O2, we would not _____. (p. 167)

make enough ATP to meet our energy requirements
have enough enzymes to catalyze reactions
be able to perform lactate fermentation
be able to synthesize organic molecules from inorganic molecules
be affected because we can switch to alcoholic fermentation


39.  

Which one of the following is the source of the energy that produces the chemiosmotic gradient in mitochondria? (p. 164)

ATP
ATP pump
cytochrome c
electron transport chain
electrons


40.  

During respiration in a eukaryotic cell, the electron transport chain is located in or on the ___________. (p. 164)

cytosol
matrix of the mitochondrion
cristae of the mitochondrion
intermembrane space of the mitochondrion
none of the above


41.  

Each ATP molecule contains about 1% of the amount of chemical energy in a single glucose molecule. Cell respiration produces about 38 ATP from one glucose. What happens to the rest of the energy in the glucose? (p. 170)

It is stored as fat.
It is converted to heat.
It is used to make water from hydrogen ions and oxygen.
It is used directly for energy.
It is stored as starch.


42.  

The overall efficiency of respiration (the percentage of the energy released that is saved as high-energy phosphate anhydride bonds) is approximately _____. (p. 170)

0.5%
2%
40%
94%
100%


43.  

Fermentation is essentially glycolysis plus an extra step in which pyruvate is reduced to form lactate or alcohol and carbon dioxide. This last step _____. (p. 170)

removes poisonous oxygen from the environment
extracts a bit more energy from glucose
enables the cell to recycle NAD+
inactivates toxic pyruvate
enables the cell to make pyruvate into substances it can use


44.  

Sports physiologists at an Olympic training center wanted to monitor athletes to determine at what point their muscles were functioning anaerobically. They could do this by checking for a buildup of _____. (p. 170)

ATP
lactate
carbon dioxide
ADP
oxygen


45.  

How much ATP can a cell make from one glucose molecule in the presence of carbon monoxide? (p. 170)

none
2ATP
4 ATP
38 ATP
18 ATP


46.  

In glycolysis in the absence of oxygen, cells need a way to regenerate which compound? (p. 170)

ethanol
carbon dioxide
NAD+
lactate
glucose


47.  

Muscle tissues make lactate from pyruvate in order to _____. (p. 170)

enable you to get drunk
get rid of toxic pyruvate
utilize the energy in pyruvate
utilize the released CO2
regenerate (oxidized) NAD+


48.  

In brewing beer, maltose (a disaccharide) is _____. (p. 170)

a flavoring ingredient
the substrate for aerobic respiration
the substrate for alcoholic fermentation
one of the enzymes for alcoholic fermentation
the organism that carries out alcoholic fermentation


49.  

When protein molecules are used as fuel for cellular respiration, _____ are produced as waste. (p. 172)

amino groups
fatty acids
sugar molecules
molecules of lactate
ethanol and CO2


50.  

A gram of fat oxidized by respiration produces approximately _____ as much ATP as a gram of carbohydrate. (p. 172)

half
twice
4 times
10 times
100 times

   



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